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As servants of the daimyos, or great lords, the In late , over a period of six weeks, Imperial Japanese Army forces brutally murdered hundreds of thousands of people—including both soldiers and civilians—in the Chinese city of Nanking or Nanjing. The horrific events are known as the Nanking Massacre or the Rape of Born to a minor warlord in Okazaki, Japan, Tokugawa Ieyasu began his military training with the Imagawa family.

He later allied himself with the powerful forces of Oda Nobunaga and then Toyotomi Hideyoshi, expanding his land holdings via a successful attack on the Shrewd at Much of the fighting took place in what is now northeastern China. The Russo-Japanese War was also a naval conflict, with ships exchanging fire in the Hirohito was emperor of Japan from until his death in He took over at a time of rising democratic sentiment, but his country soon turned toward ultra-nationalism and militarism. The explosion wiped out 90 percent of the city and immediately killed 80, people; tens of thousands more would later A treaty with Japan in had assured free immigration, Tokyo began life as a village known as Edo.

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This Day In History. Tokugawa Shoguns Close Japan to Foreign Influence Suspicious of foreign intervention and colonialism, the Tokugawa regime acted to exclude missionaries and eventually issued a complete ban on Christianity in Japan. Tokugawa Period: Economy and Society The Neo-Confucian theory that dominated Japan during the Tokugawa Period recognized only four social classes—warriors samurai , artisans, farmers and merchants—and mobility between the four classes was officially prohibited.

Meiji Restoration As agricultural production lagged in comparison to the mercantile and commercial sectors, samurai and daimyo did not fare as well as the merchant class. Sources Meiji Constitution: Britannica. Samurai and Bushido.


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Based on these definitions, this article proposes a theory-based explanation for the interactions and integration among the higher education systems of the three Chinese societies. The theoretical perspective adopted here is that of sociological neo-institutionalism, which considers the regulative, normative and cultural-cognitive elements as the core ingredients of institutions Scott Scott, W.

From modernisation to great power relations in Asia

Institutions and Organizations. London : Sage. These three elements illustrate the constitution and diffusion of the Greater China phenomenon. Accordingly, the political and economic aspects of the phenomenon, especially the communication and coordination mechanisms across the Taiwan Strait, can be seen as regulative institutions, which generate those coercive process that accelerate intra-Greater China interactions and integration. These regulative elements also impose a normative framework that cultivates a myth for legitimising and rationalising the accounts of reality, the regulative rules and the programmes for taking actions.

This myth also answers the questions on the constraints and expectations that are enacted by the regulative elements Schriewer Schriewer, J. In short, these regulative and normative elements are mutually reinforcing. In the context of Greater China, the myth may refer to the obligation of being Chinese i. Chineseness and building a unified, strong and prosperous China. The operation of the Greater China phenomenon illustrates the rationalisation and legitimisation of such a myth. This category of Chineseness is considered a regulatory approach to the Greater China phenomenon. With regard to the cultural-cognitive elements, Tu's Tu, W.

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This neo-institutionalist interpretation of Chineseness, which is called discursive approach , highlights the cultural scripts for actions in social transformations Schriewer Schriewer, J. A key element to understanding this process is the transformative potential of the cultural differences among Hong Kong, Taiwan and mainland China and that of the associated differences in Chineseness, which also emphasises the value of a scholarly exchange among the Chinese societies.

The following sections explain how the abovementioned approaches help identify the different scenarios of higher education development in Greater China.


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Following the regulatory approach to Chineseness, the adoption of the Greater China concept in higher education involves the construction of a regulatory mechanism that can provide the rules and regulations for governing cross-border academic activities among Chinese societies, thereby promoting harmonisation in the higher education arena. In fact, the last decade witnessed an intensified cooperation among the higher education systems of mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan.

In this process, the related policy initiatives and regulations, which focused on admission, qualification recognition and employment, have been developed to promote cross-border student mobility. This integration in higher education has been observed after PRC resumed its sovereignty over Hong Kong in and after Taiwanese President Ma Ying-Jeou assumed the presidency in For example, the universities in Hong Kong have accepted the strength of Mainland National Joint College Entrance Examination for application for undergraduate admission since In , mainland China and Hong Kong mutually recognised the academic degrees awarded by each other's universities.

In , mainland China recognised the higher education qualifications awarded by Taiwanese universities. In , mainland China accepted Taiwan's General Scholastic Ability Test as a tool for admission qualification, and in the same year, Taiwan passed a legislation that recognised those academic degrees awarded by selected Chinese universities and allowed Taiwanese universities to recruit students from mainland China. These initiatives indicate the increasing interdependence among these three Chinese societies in the higher education arena.

However, given that Taiwan and Hong Kong are culturally and politically distinct from mainland China, they are threatened by the competition from mainland China and are hesitant to participate in the integration process. Izuhara , — Cheltenham : Edward Elgar.

Tokugawa Period and Meiji Restoration

In this context, this article argues that though the formation of a regional space of higher education across the Taiwan Strait is in the formative stage Mok Mok, K. The same concept can also be used in examining the retention and co-existence of distinctive discursive elements i. Taiwaneseness and Hongkongness, which will be explained later in the higher education integration among the three Chinese societies.

Nonetheless, the adoption of the concept must be viewed in light of wider political economic contexts. First, the creation of a Greater China higher education region is a politically sensitive issue. The cross-strait collaboration in higher education between mainland China and Taiwan obviously involves a political agenda. For Beijing, similar to its other favourable economic policies designed to meet Taiwan's needs over the recent years, the intensification of higher education cooperation involves the political intention of strengthening the foundations for the future development of cross-strait relations.

This background explains why mainland China has chosen to adopt a more open attitude while Taiwan tends to be conservative in the cross-strait higher educational exchanges. This background also justifies the policy of restrictions imposed by the Taiwanese government against mainland China.

Accordingly, the policy restricts the number of mainland Chinese universities that are recognised by Taiwanese authorities, the number of inbound students from the mainland and the types of qualifications that mainlanders can pursue in Taiwan. Meanwhile, students from mainland China are prohibited from gaining scholarship and professional certifications, working or staying in Taiwan after graduation, receiving additional scores that other overseas Chinese students can receive in examinations and taking Taiwan's civil service examinations Chan Chan, S. Such an anxiety was reflected by their protests against the implementation of moral and national education in , in which tens of thousands of Hong Kong citizens, including many students, protested the introduction of a national education curriculum that was perceived as a propaganda for brainwashing the youth in Hong Kong Chin Chin, A.

Wang , — In the higher education arena, the anxiety is illustrated by the concerns about the overdependence on a single source of non-local students. Second, despite the political concerns, market force and economic imperatives continue to strongly influence the policy of opening up the higher education systems. Given the low fertility rate, the associated shrinking of the domestic higher education market, the overexpansion of the higher education sector and the resulting oversupply of higher education services, Taiwan has recently included the exporting of its higher education among its objectives.

Since , the Taiwanese government named higher education as one of the country's top 10 service industries and major exports, with mainland China serving as one of its major export partners Chen and Lo Chen, D. Hong Kong has also shown its intention to export education services and utilise its strong links with mainland China and its cosmopolitan outlook as strong competitive advantages over its regional competitors by announcing its objective to become a regional education hub in UGC UGC Universities Grants Committee.

Hong Kong : University Grants Committee. Indeed, Hong Kong has the historical role of acting as the gateway between China and the West. The link between Hong Kong and mainland China also reveals how the education hub strategy has strengthened the former's role as a regional broker in the international higher education trade Lee Lee, J. Third, the intensification of higher education cooperation and integration is discussed in the globalisation context.

Shin and Toutkoushian Shin, J. Shin , R. Toutkoushian, and U. Teichler , 1 — Dordrecht : Springer Science and Business Media. These ideals have driven the parallel development of the policy directions in the Greater China region. In fact, the higher education systems in the three Chinese societies comprising Greater China have moved rapidly towards massification over the last two decades and have attempted to pursue world-class excellence by launching special funding schemes. Nevertheless, at the same time, these societies are leading consumers of foreign education and follow the conventional pattern of international student mobility, in which most outbound students from less-developed countries prefer to go to Western developed countries.

Tokugawa Period and Meiji Restoration - HISTORY

This dual challenge of building world-class universities and promoting mass higher education, coupled with their peripheral positions in the global higher education market, is the key contextual factor that explains why the higher education sectors in these Chinese societies must move beyond national borders and upgrade to regional and global domains Mok Mok, K. More importantly, the interconnectivities among these societies and their roles in the Greater China region may affect their global presence and the course of globalisation.

The correlation between the concept of Greater China and the course of globalisation is reflected in the following questions: How does the changing position of the three Chinese societies in the international higher education market influence the global flow of international students? Overall, the Greater China concept is useful in accounting for the growing ties in higher education among mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, even though these ties are institutionalised through bilateral agreements rather than multilateral agreements and despite the absence of a regional governance framework.

Contrary to the neo-institutionalist assumption, a mutually reinforcing relationship does not exist between the regulative and normative factors.


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Instead, the operation of the Greater China concept reflects a kind of resistance against the normative forces i. The discursive approach suggests that the Greater China concept can be adopted as a framework for conceptualising the continuing and post-territorial rediscovery of the relevance of Chineseness to higher education development. Relevant theses are found in the East Asian higher education literature.

For instance, Marginson Marginson, S. This imposed Confucian model is formed by four interdependent elements concerning the role of nation-state, the eagerness to pursue higher education, the national examination systems and the investments in the advancement of higher education systems. They are also the determining factors that explain the rising prominence of East Asian higher education systems.